Sepandarmazgan is the day for celebrating love, friendship and earth in the ancient Iranian culture. Celebrated on the 29th of Bahman in the Iranian calendar, which coincided this year with Feb. 18, the custom dates back to the Zoroastrian tradition.
According to this ancient tradition, Sepandarmazgan was observed in the Great Persian Empire in 20th century BC. It is also the national title of Earth, which is the symbol of love and modesty. Persians have a rich culture with many great feasts that are associated with happiness and joy. In the feast of Sepandarmazgan, the Earth was worshiped and women were venerated. On this day, women and girls sat on a throne and men and boys had to obey them and present gifts. This custom reminded men to honor and respect women.
لینک مطالب مرتبط: Sepandarmazgan، تاریخچه و رسوم روز ولنتاین، Sepandarmazgan, day of love in Iran، پیامک انگلیسی تبریک سپندارمذگان،
طبقه بندی: فرهنگ پارسی،
برچسب ها: اسفندگان، 29 بهمن، 5 اسفند، عشاق، ایرانی، ولنتاین، Sepandarmazgan،
English, the non-language
Much of the signage that can be found in contemporary public spaces is commercial. It is a form of advertising, and language choice in commercial signage such as shop names is a good indicator of the values associated with a particular language. The basic idea is that the connotations of the shop name are such that they will attract potential customers. From a multilingual perspective, the interesting signs are those where a language other than the default choice – the official language of a particular place – is used. In much of the non-English-speaking world, English signs, of course, hold pride of place and English has come to be widely associated with modernity, progress, globalization and consumption. Whereas languages other than English mostly index ethnic stereotypes, English indexes a social stereotype (as I discussed in detail in this review article). What that means is that English is not used to conjure up some archetypal American or British quality in the same way that French or Italian are used to imbue a business with some stereotypical French-ness or Italian-ness.
The association of English with consumerism is perfectly encapsulated in this shop sign at Munich airport. Munich is the capital of Bavaria, one of the states in Germany’s federal structure. The German word for “Bavaria” is “Bayern” and the first syllable of “Bay-ern” is pronounced just like English “buy.” The shop name “ern” is thus a neat word play. Bavaria’s national color blue against the background of the national rhombus pattern reinforce the national association. As someone who grew up in Bavaria and had a certain reference for the national symbolism instilled in my childhood, my gut reaction to this sign was one of dismay and offense.
English in this sign clearly bears no relationship whatsoever to any English-speaking country. Rather, it associates English with the national symbolism of a non-English-speaking country, Bavaria, and presents that nation as an object of consumption. The products for sale in this shop are all kinds of souvenirs: Bavarian souvenirs, German souvenirs, European souvenirs, airport souvenirs, Christmas souvenirs (I took the picture in November last year) and other stuff whose only purpose it is to be bought. Buy!
English makes this place – just like pretty much any other airport – a non-space of gratuitous consumption, gratuitous travel, and gratuitous national imagery. English is the language of globalization, that’s for sure; but it’s the globalization of nothing, . Does that make English the language of nothing? Non-people in non-places buying non-things in non-service encounters and using a non-language?!
By: Ingrid Piller
لینک مطالب مرتبط: English the non-language -- Language on the Move، انگلیسی آن نا-زبان -- سایت زبان در حرکت،
طبقه بندی: زبان شناسی،
برچسب ها: مقاله، زبان شناسی، انگلیسی، نیلوفر بهروز، دانشگاه اصفهان، وحید پرورش، نا زبان،
pinch salt; 1/2 cup butter; 1 1/3 cup sugar; 1 pie shell, 9-inch;3 eggs, separated; 3 tablespoons flour; 1 1/2 cups buttermilk; 1 tablespoon lemon juice; 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg; 1 teaspoon finely grated lemon peel
Cream the butter and sugar; add the egg yolks, beating after each addition. Beat in flour and buttermilk; add the lemon juice, lemon peel, nutmeg, and a pinch of salt. Beat the egg whites until stiff; fold into the filling. Pour the filling into the pie shell; cook in center of a preheated 325° oven until the custard is set and slightly brown, about 1 hour. Serve with berries, fresh fruit, or dessert sauce.
لینک مطالب مرتبط: Banana Walnut Bread Recipe،
طبقه بندی: زنگ تفریح،
برچسب ها: باترمیلک، دستورالعمل، پای، buttermilk، pie، recipe، انگلیسی،